HomeClinical TopicsCardio-PulmonarySickle cell trait can take a sudden deadly turn

Sickle cell trait can take a sudden deadly turn


Many people who carry sickle cell trait don’t know it. Yet, it can be just as deadly as sickle cell anemia.
In the United States, about 80,000 people have sickle cell anemia, but more than 12 million have sickle cell trait. Both disorders target certain ethnic groups, including South and Central Americans, Cubans, Saudi Arabians, Asians, Mediterraneans, and American Indians, but the disorders disproportionately strike African Americans. About 1 in 400 African Americans have sickle cell disease. About 1 in 10 African Americans have sickle cell trait.

What causes sickle cell disorders
Both sickle cell anemia and sickle cell trait are genetic disorders. People with sickle cell anemia have inherited homozygous sickle hemoglobin genes (hemoglobin S) from both parents; their blood type is called hemoglobin SS. People with sickle cell trait have inherited a normal hemoglobin gene (hemoglobin A) from one parent and a sickle hemoglobin gene from the other parent; their blood type is called hemoglobin AS.
Sickle cell anemia is a general term for several genetic disorders caused by red blood cells (RBCs) that are sickle-shaped because of deformed hemoglobin. A chronic condition, sickle cell anemia causes life-threatening signs and symptoms, such as an enlarged spleen, muscle pain, liver scarring, pneumonia, and bone and joint pain. The typical lifespan for those with sickle cell anemia is 40 to 60 years.

Screening for sickle cells
Two laboratory tests, Sickledex and hemoglobin electrophoresis, are used to screen for sickle cell anemia and sickle cell trait.
Sickledex detects sickle cells if 25% or more of RBCs have a sickle shape. Hemoglobin electrophoresis is much more sensitive: It can detect a small number of sickle cells. It also determines if a person has one or two mutated genes, thus distinguishing sickle cell trait from sickle cell anemia. Because the less sensitive Sickledex is less expensive, it’s commonly used for screening.
If one or both parents have sickle cell trait, a newborn needs genetic testing because early diagnosis helps prevent complications.

New view of sickle cell trait
Until the 1980s, sickle cell trait was considered a carrier state and a
benign condition. But researchers who were investigating why young, healthy, African-American recruits were dying during military training discovered that 50% of them had sickle cell trait.
Today, people with sickle cell trait are considered to be at risk for death if they perform strenuous exercise without proper conditioning, become dehydrated, have an increased body temperature, participate in high-altitudes training, or exercise after an illness with a fever.
Sickle cell trait doesn’t cause obvious signs and symptoms, but in certain situations it may behave like sickle cell anemia with serious consequences. For example, some people with sickle cell trait have experienced abdominal pain at high altitudes and required a splenectomy. None of them had a clue they had sickle cell trait until they had this experience. Others learn they have sickle cell trait late in life when they have an illness that causes dehydration or fever. Still others find out at a health fair screening.

Why does sickle cell trait behave like sickle cell anemia?
People with sickle cell trait have both normal and abnormal RBCs, but usually both types are round. Round RBCs move easily through the tiny capillaries of the body. Unfortunately, when the abnormal RBCs are exposed to conditions that lead to hypoxia or dehydration, their shape changes from round to crescent or sickle-shaped. These sickle cells don’t transport as much oxygen as round cells, and they have difficulty moving through capillaries. Thus, body cells suffer from hypoxia both because of diminished oxygen transport and because of capillary blockage by the sickle cells. Unrelieved hypoxia progresses to cell death, excruciating pain (sickle-cell crisis), lactic acidosis, muscle and organ damage, and ultimately death.
When a person exercises, oxygen needs increase, and some cells may experience hypoxia. The hypoxia is more profound when a person exercises at high altitudes, where the atmospheric oxygen concentration is low. Any exercise causes perspiration and dehydration as the body attempts to cool itself. Perspiration is especially profound when a person is not conditioned, exercises strenuously, or exercises in a hot, dry environment.

How deadly rhabdomyolysis develops
A person with sickle cell trait who engages in strenuous exercise also can develop exertional rhabdomyolysis, the catabolism of muscle tissue—a potentially fatal condition. Rhabdomyolysis occurs when dehydration leads to sickle cells. When a person exercises, muscle protein breaks down and produces a waste product called myoglobin. If myoglobin production is excessive, and the body doesn’t have enough fluid to dilute it, myoglobin rises to toxic levels that damage the kidneys. Signs and symptoms of rhabdomyolysis include muscular swelling, muscular weakness, cramping, and pain. The urine looks like tea because it contains a large amount of myoglobin.
Treatment is based on symptom severity and is needed immediately to improve the chance of survival. The patient remains on bed rest and restricts all activity to decrease the workload on the affected body systems. The patient receives oral fluids and I.V. infusions to promote myoglobin excretion. For the same reason, a patient may receive a diuretic and sodium bicarbonate.

Preventing complications
No standard recommendations exist to decrease the risks for those with sickle cell trait, but certainly better screening and education would help. People need to know whether or not they have sickle cell trait. Because Sickledex can’t detect most cases of sickle cell trait, hemoglobin electrophoresis should be used for screening. When this test determines that a person has sickle cell trait, the person needs up-to-date information about the condition, including genetic counseling.
Athletic trainers, team physicians, coaches, and military drill instructors should be taught about sickle cell trait and the dangers of dehydration, the need to adjust to a new climate or higher altitude, the importance of physical conditioning, and the importance of rest during and immediately after an acute illness. Athletes who have sickle cell trait should inform coaches and trainers.
Many people have the trait and don’t know it, and those who do know may have been told it’s benign. But now we know better. We need more effective screening and patient teaching to manage the condition and prevent deadly complications.

Selected references
Asgharian A, Anie K. Women with sickle cell trait: reproductive decision-making. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2003;21(1):23-34.
Cleary M. Sickle cell trait and exertional rhabdomyolysis. Athletic Therapy Today. 2003;8(5):66-77.
Kark J. Sickle cell trait. Available at: http://sickle.bwh.harvard.edu/sickle_trait.html. Accessed May 20, 2007.
Platt A, Sacerdote A. Hope and Destiny: A Patient’s and Parent’s Guide to Sickle Cell Disease and Sickle Cell Trait. Roscoe, Ill: Hilton; 2002.
For a complete list of selected references, visit www.AmericanNurse Today.com.

Phyllis Adams, EdD, RN, FNP, APRN, BC, NP-C, is Director of the Family Nurse Practitioner Program at the University of Texas at Arlington School of Nursing and a Family Nurse Practitioner at HEB School-Based Clinic in the John Peter Smith Health Network System, Euless, Texas.


  1. I too have SCT, was diagnosed when I was 19 with my first son. I’m now 55 and have suffered from severe pain, fatigue, joint pain, overall tiredness. Glad to know that I have a group feeling like me – let’s push for more research.

  2. Thanks everyone for sharing on your journey with SCT. I am 39 and just found out I have the trait at 29. The constant tiredness and pain just would not let me do a lot of activities. I am a registered nurse and my job requires so much standing and running around, I consume a lot of anti inflammatory drugs just to keep me going on a regular basis: sometimes 2 times daily. My leg pains were so bad I started falling. Now I get a gel injection in my knees to keep me from falling every 6 months and reduce the pain.
    I pray a lot for a permanent healing from the Lord Jesus and I believe He hears me.
    My back bone pains were healed through prayer.

  3. As part of researching, SCT leg pain, I came across this article. Both my daughters were diagnosed w SCT at a very young age. We are blessed w two family members as Medical doctors advised us to be careful who married that they get tested to make sure not a carrier. Late seventies, early eighties SCD was being discussed heavily in the Black community. It turns out I married a carrier. The girls, now in late thirties and early forties suffered many episodes of debilitating leg cramps, they both played sports. Though their health care professionals insisted no correlation, my Medical Doctor Sister informed us there was a connection.

    Now living in different cities, my oldest daughter travel 3600 miles via plane to see me. After playing competitive table tennis, she has been in bed all week with severe leg cramps. I believe she may benefit from IV fluids n oxygen. Btw this daughter has an added consideration of having donated one of her kidneys. This now have us even more concerned. Please pray she is provided the right care and directions for her overall medical well being.

    Thank you and thank you all for sharing. We are blessed to have come across this article/group.

  4. I went through my whole childhood experiencing horrible leg pains. Doctors would say it was growing pains and it was generally dismissed. They would normally occur after playing sports at school. The pain would keep me up at night and I would keep a hot water bottle on my leg (as a child you don’t normally take painkillers) so my mother would just comfort me until I would have exhausted myself from the hours of tears and agony until I fell asleep. There just seemed to be no resolution, and as a normal healthy fit girl, there wasn’t a suggestion that stopping sport would solve the problem. The pain continued through to adulthood and although I had stopped playing sports the pain would start after an active day of using my legs such as a full day of shopping or a long drive (3hrs+) or being at a festival. It’s easier to manage as an adult as painkillers would dull the pain, but the pain is still pretty bad and without painkillers the pain can’t be ignored and I definitely wouldn’t be able to sleep. It was only until I got a virus (maybe flu) in feb 2020 (aged 31) that after I recovered I had the leg pain but it lasted a whole month! I had to take pain killers every day just to be able to concentrate on something other than the pain. I did some research on flu and leg pain as it just didn’t seem normal and this led me to reading stories of people with SCT having similar leg pains. I’m not one to diagnose myself after a Google search but I’d read enough to know I had it. SCT had never been talked about in my family, neither parent knew much about it, and both said they didn’t have it. I myself didn’t know much about it, but my gut told me I had it. I requested a test from my doctor (I said I was considering starting a family, I felt like I had to justify the request, even though everyone should be able to get it with no reason) and she told me it was very unlikely I had it and reluctantly sent me for a test. And one week later I got a call telling me yes I did have sickle cell trait. I knew I was right. But then that was it, I tried to ask more questions to say is this the reason why I have had this recurring leg pain and she had no answers, she knew nothing. I was referred to a haematologist and they said it’s unlikely to be linked and referred me to a rheumatologist (I didn’t think that would help and it didn’t). But anyway I’m still here, currently with an ache in my leg because I did exercise yesterday with no answers. I feel there needs to be more research done, it will take time but in the same way I knew I had SCT is the same way I know that something is going on with my blood when I do any form of moderate- intense exercise or have prolonged use of my legs. I just don’t feel enough is being done for SCT carriers. My pains may not be life threatening but it did and does effect my quality of life. It may just be leg pains that eventually go away but no one knows what else is happening to the body silently when one goes through these episodes. As soon as it is recognised and understood the sooner medics can develop medication or find prevention or just generally know how handle their healthcare better to help children and adults to reduce some of the negative impacts of having SCT.

  5. Thank you for your comment. I too am going through the same thing. I was also diagnosed with having fibromyalgia and having SCT. My pain and fatigue is getting worse daily and unexplainable to the doctors. I now have been referred to a Rheumatologist for additional research. I’m really thinking that it’s more to this than it just being fibromyalgia, so this is why I’m searching the effects of having SCT. I really think there are more health issues having SCT than people realize. Hopefully we can find some answers and some relief in the process.

  6. My daughter is 3 and she was confirmed as having sickle cell trait after having a newborn screening test. Two months after she was born, she ran a high fever with no other symptoms. We took her to the hospital and she was diagnosed with a kidney infection that resulted from a UTI. She was hospitalized for 3 days. Since then, she’s had at least one UTI per year despite our best efforts to prevent them. She also runs random high fevers with no other symptoms. I am CONVINCED all of these symptoms are a result of SCT. I’m pretty ignorant as to the research that continues for people living with SCT but I do hope they continue to delve into SCT and how it affects those living with it. I don’t think it’s as benign as believed. Of course, it is not nearly as severe a condition as SCD but clearly, SCT is not an inactive diagnosis. It causes symptoms in some people and it is frustrating when I go the doctor or hospital and they don’t even consider SCT as a possible cause for my daughter’s fevers or UTI’s because it’s been deemed a “benign” condition.

    • Hi, I’m now 44 yrs old. When I was about 7 I started getting high fevers. Then came the abdominal pain and nosebleeds. The pain was so bad that I would pass out. The doctors could not find anything wrong. Once I got older, I found out that I had SCT. In my late 20s I started going to a doctor who informed me that I may be having symptoms of the disease. He sent me to a class to learn more about it. Everything eventually went away but now the pain is back. It’s a life long struggle for me.

  7. Hi l am 27years old African know to have the trait at 20years..prior to the discovery l was active like any other normal kid but as the years go by l have had regular hip pain especially after streinous work since the age of 22 years and now l am constantly fatigued with no obvious reasons..but l realise it’s associated to extreme straining n lately l am in an area with water scarcity l don’t take slot of water n my urine is scarily brown..l sometimes have unexplained right sided temporal headaches n pain in my spleen area.
    I don’t know if all of these is actually associated to my carrier state.More research really need to be done.but as prevention good oxygen and hydration can help for now from what l read above

    • Yes! I was a college athlete and across my 20s I was in physical therapy more and more and more in attempts to remain active / fit / look good. I was informed this information by a nurse. I was disgusted at her advice to exercise seldomly. Eventually I caved and am pain free. I’ve never been pain free. I never thought my never ending joint pain and tendinitis was from regular exercise most people take for granted. I am now to where I want to exercise bc I have put on weight. I have dabbled and see what’s coming. I’m glad to have answer but yeah it sucks. The body can’t recover as fast with age so sickle trait symptoms come with age… or at least they did for me. Early 30s was my breaking point I spent an entire summer in bed. I didn’t want to believe my actions caused that / trying to maintain ‘my normal’. I see now ‘my normal’ was too extreme for my condition as I’ve started aging

  8. Hello I am 40 year old female.I am a carrier of SCT. I too have had pain that could not be explained. I am anemic. I get fatigue fast. I am convinced that all my symptoms are related to SCT. Let’s continue to share and become better informed.

  9. I just have a lot of questions after reading all the articles. Very helpful and educative too. By having the right answer, I will be able to educate those in need. Thank you.

  10. Thank you for this article! I have been struggling with a whole bunch of symptoms for years and the best doctors could do was throw me under the “Fibromyalgia Umbrella” with prescriptions for lots of meds. It is so frustrating that I can trace all of my problems to Sickle Cell Trait, but doctors won’t even consider the possibility. By reading countless articles, I suspect that my high blood pressure, hypothyroid and pre diabetes are all related to the inflammation caused by the autoimmune response of my body to sickled cells. Also, constant pain, stiffness, stomach issues, fatigue, and now Calcific Tendonitis could be tied to SCT. I hope someone sees all these comments and makes the connection and allows for further testing so we can all start to heal from this nightmare.

  11. Wow so sad to hear all of this… ??????I have a 15 years old who was diagnosed with SCT. In early age…his doctor updated me years later reminding me of the SCT that I had forgot about it because back than 15 years ago they tough been a carrier wasn’t dangerous unless when planning on having children in future was important to let SCT cattier partner know about the risk of having a SCD child( what would be dangerous)… well doctor mention about children dying of di hydration, falling death without cause and it was becoming serious that SCT was the cause, that it was important to keep my child hydrated and make shore school knew and not push him into extreme exercise in PT or any other game…he did complain of muscle joint pain what I tought it was do to grown didn’t pay attention one day he got a fever from nothing… reading this reminded me hoe serious I got to keep an eye on him and believe it or not I forgot the Dad who around his 40yrs also been in the hospital for chest pain, muscle pain and fatigue…now My child suffering from fatigue what they diagnosed has anxiety but now I believe SCT can be a cause…definitely keeping a close eye on both thanks to you all…?? your way

  12. I am 50 years old with SCT. I have experienced many symptoms over my life from extreme nausea, vomiting, fatigue, chest pains, stomach pains, leg cramps and unexplained rib pain. No-one has ever related it to SCT. However deep down I knew it was related. Thank you for sharing. I knew I was not crazy.

  13. My daughter carries the trait.. she has had issues for most of her life, exhaustion, cramps, seizures and or passing out. At first she was diagnosed with epilepsy, then vasovagal syncope. I have told the doctors for years that it is related to the SCT, they look at me as if I sprouted another head. But, when she seizes and is given fluids through an IV, within an hour she is fine. None of the tests the neurologist did showed that it was in fact epilepsy.. she only seizes when she is hot, physically exerted, etc. Funny a child with SCT can die from dehydration at a faster rate than someone without the trait, but none of her problems are related to SCT. Now that she is almost 20, the UTI’s are getting worse.. I have often heard of other women with SCT having this issue as well. What do we DO? She is tired of always feeling horrible and I don’t know what else to do.

  14. I am a 39 yo female with 15 yr old twin boys and they both have the trait. They have also had some symptoms. I have sc symptoms but have never been diagnosed with the trait. I would like more information please.

  15. I was told personally by my physician anyone that has a sickle cell trait should be taking folate supplements everyday of their life how true is this

  16. I’m a32 year female , I have 3 children 2 boys 1 girl, my second son and I have sickle cell trait, for the first year of of his life he suffered with fevers and had no other symptoms and strep, flu test always negative so they said he had fevers of unknown origin.
    I too am always feverish, suffer from abdominal cramps/discomfort and I am always feeling Tired extremely exhausted. I’ve known that I have had sct since I was 16 years old as a result of being pregnant and my husband had to be checked with each pregnancy. If I get dehydrated after working out of if I drink alchohol , or even just throwing up, I get severe leg cramps to the point of being unable to walk, I also noticed that I have been having alot of sharp chest pains more then usual. My niece has the full blown disease and is in the hospital monthy staying at least 2 werks each month she tends to have crisis around the time she menstruate, I know and believes that sct carrier’s go through crisis as well , Dr.s are convinced else wise because of what they where taught in medical school and no one seems to want to do anything about it…

  17. I’m 38yrs old, I’ve been knowing all my life that I have the trait, my brother has the trait and my 11yr old son has it too. As an adult I am constantly in pain, every single day, I’ve been anemic all my life. I’ve had pulmonary embolisms in both lungs, and lower abdominal pain. I’m relieved to see other people are going through what I’ve been/going through. I knew I wasn’t crazy.

  18. I am a 71 year old female, my first child a boy was born with a heart defect, 7 chambers instead of 4 and twisted valves and also a hole on his heart, and in all appearances appeared healthy, at 14 months he had a stroke and in was then that we learned that he had sickle cell anemia, i then realized that i am the carrier as my great great grandfather was African,no one ever told me that i to could have symptoms, my son died in JAN 1967, the cause of death was as far as i know only heart related, i was 18 years old at the time,after discovering today that if you have sickle cell trait that you can have feverishness and chills which i have suffered with most of the time, i have had a knee replacement a hip replacement, and first began suffering from joint problems at the age of 10, i am reasonably fit, look healthy, and i am still fairly agile, what i would like to know is if these fevers and chills that are now a normal part of my life are caused by having the sickle cell trait and if i should ask the doctor to test my blood for this, thank you, Susan Mcilwrick

  19. I am 37 years old. I have a total of six children. I didn’t discoveree that I had the trait until my sixth child. I always was anemic. I will hurt and feel so tired for no apparent reason. The last months of my pregnancy, I went from just taking a iron pill daily to taking it three times a day. I work for a daycare. I had got a cramp so bad in one of my buttocks that it interfered with my walking. I was limping so bad that my coworkers empathized that they were limping just by watching me. I got to leave a couple hours early though because of the excruciating pain. I dont like taking medicine. I dont smoke nor drink. I cant even drink one wine cooler, it feels like I done ran 10 miles nonstop. I did research and it seems like the trait gets swept under the rug. It’s not a big deal? Even when I was diagnosed with the trait, I was somewhat relieved because I was in pain all the time for unknown reasons why. I have been working all my life with this condition. Luckily, my children dont have it. Thanks for sharing your story.

  20. I was born and raised in Africa. In my very young age i was the only child that always complain about pain almost all the time. Than my mom ask for more test to find out what is going on with me. I was diagnosed with sickle cell trait. From that time Dr prescribe a medicine that I was always taking and feel better. Now I’m 39 and live in US and working very hard. Most all the time is have pain on my arm leg sometime difficute to get up sometime I think is over for me. With some rest I feel better and go back to work. My Dr always tell me that the trait don’t cause these pain and there is no medication for people with the trait. Last week they test my cpk levels because of the muscle pain that I always complain and my cpk is 234 H. I’m so tressed and hope that I don’t have a muscle damage or disease.

  21. Have sickle cell trait. Feel tired often.

    Looking for a doctor to treat me in AZ.

    I live in Yuma, full time employee, active, youthful senior, advanced degrees, travels often.

  22. Im so glad there’s info out now, got tired and frustrated about people thinking I was being silly. A health care professional colleague told me that it sounded silly and didnt make any sense.
    At about age 7 I had serious abdominal pains and the doctor queried SCD, thats when i knew I had the trait. Up to about age 8 to 14 I got moderate to severe hip and knee joint pains that sometimes were difficult to even differentiate which joint was affected. I had to use pain gels every time as the areas (right and left) would feel so inflamed.
    Pains sudsided as I got older but about 8 years ago i started cycling and the pain returned whenever I cycle for over 30 minutes non-stop. I tried continuing hoping it would just work its way in but the pain got severe so several occasions I restarted and stopped….SAME PAIN as a child.

  23. All of this information is true I am a Sickle cell trait Carrier an I’m in pain constantly ,always cold, constant migraines, My stomach hurts, Heavy bleeding. I didn’t know what was going on until I’ve gotten sick ? 5years ago I was 8mons pregnant with my second Son I had to got to the hospital only to learn ?? my baby passed away ?? that’s when the doctor told me Ive got severe chronic anemia I ask what? He then explained I have Sickle Cell Trait he then explained to say half of my blood cells are normal ? the other half are Sickles ?he said there’s no cure all you can do is take prescribed medication ,iron pills ?try to get on a healthy diet an workout he finally said ?? that’s going to help you in any way but only to suppress it because there’s no cure sorry.

  24. My left kidney was bleeding and doctors couldn’t understand why. Didn’t know I had the trait, I was 16 years old. Now at age of 63, both my legs clotted and had surgery on both leg three times. They say sickle cell trait had nothing to do with it. I am in pain everyday. I need help

  25. I was about 24 maybe 25 and I end up in the hospital for 1week for my sickle cell trait and that was when I learned what it was and that I had just the trait. It started with me having a regular cold from what I thought then high fevers of 108 and a pain in my lower stomach area I thought I was constipated then I was getting sick but nothing was coming up so my kids grandma took me to the ER and the doctor told me he had never seen a person get sick from having just the trait and that is when I learned of what sickle cell was and my 10yr old has the full blown sickle cell and I am 34 now and I still remain having pains and sickness just off the trait.

  26. I have the sickle cell trait. As a teen I had episodes of fainting and severe stomach pain. But unfortunately, the doctors never told me I had the trait. I was always viewed as if I was lying. But now I am 41 years old I have a daughter and a son that happened to have the trait and they both suffer from the same pain I have. The same pain. At this age 41 I still have pain and the doctors as of now don’t understand my pain or my children pain.

  27. I can verify that this information about Sickle Cell Trait is correct. My husband was born with it, but had no problems while deployed in the mountains of Germany as a young man in Army. One day when he was in mid fifties, he developed a pulmonary embolus, and was placed on Coumadin. Later, he complained of L hip pain, diagnosed as Avascular Necrosis. After his hip replacement, he was weaned from the Coumadin dosing when it was determined that he did not need to take it for life.
    He lived a normal life for two years, until he went on a long road trip and returned home. Within two days, he began having leg/chest pain and tests revealed that his heart, lungs, aorta, groin vessels and L leg all were clotted.
    tPA was done, but to no avail and he died two days after admission.
    The Sickle Cell Trait led to a Hypercoagulopathy which could not be reversed.

  28. Two Out of four of my children have sickle cell trait. Is this something I should discuss with their physical education teacher? Are there certain precautions that we should take while being active in PE?


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