HomeClinical TopicsBuilding moral resilience to neutralize moral distress

Building moral resilience to neutralize moral distress

Author(s): Cynda Hylton Rushton PhD, RN, FAAN

Moral distress occurs when one recognizes one’s moral responsibility in a situation; evaluates the various courses of action; and identifies, in accordance with one’s beliefs, the morally correct decision—but is then prevented from following through.
The literature is replete with the mounting evidence of the incidence and sources of moral distress.It’s a growing problem that not only contributes to burnout, fractured inter-professional relationships, and shortages of healthcare workers, but also undermines the safety and quality of care. Despite the widespread scholarship and dialogue about moral distress, few interventions have been effective in mitigating its negative impact. What has been missing is a way forward that acknowledges the reality of moral distress and points to effective ways to build moral resilience.

Moral resilience

As nurses, our primary focus is on the people we serve. When ethical challenges arise in clinical care, we need to be morally resilient to respond in ways that minimize our distress and preserve our integrity. Moral resilience is the capacity of a person to sustain, restore or deepen their integrity in response to moral complexity, confusion, distress, or setbacks. It’s founded on our self-knowledge of and commitment to our values and intentions.

Moral resilience requires us to conscientiously examine our views. Fundamentally, moral resilience arises from a self-regulated, balanced mind and heart, an open, curious, nonreactive mindset, clear values, and principled action. If we are morally resilient, we are resolute in our moral actions despite fear and realistic about our own limitations; we seek meaning in situations that threaten our moral sensitivity and reasoning. Likewise, we are able to discern the appropriate levels of moral responsibility in morally complex, ambiguous, or conflict-laden situations.

Strategies to Cultivate Moral Resilience

As nurses, we can adopt strategies that help us cultivate our individual moral resilience, and advocate for systems strategies that create a culture of ethical practice. We can take steps to address moral distress in ethically difficult situations. Based on previous work, here are some ideas that can enrich and leverage heart, mind, and spirit. These individual strategies, in tandem with systems-focused interventions to foster a culture of ethical practice, are essential to preserve or restore nurse’s integrity.

Foster self-awareness

Explore your thoughts and feelings that accompany moral distress, and be willing to acknowledge that they may be biased, incorrect, or congruent with your values. Become curious about the conscious or unconscious assumptions (positive and negative) that may be guiding your actions. Repeatedly inquire to determine if they are true or relevant in the current situation or if they may involve projections from prior experiences. By being self-honest and transparent, we can expand our ability to respond to morally distressing situations with clarity, confidence, and diminished personal cost.

Develop self-regulation capacities

Cultivate your ability to make and uphold your moral commitments despite fear or uncertainty. Self-regulation includes the capacity to mindfully notice and respond to signals from the body, emotions, and thought patterns to restore balance when upsets or ethical challenges occur. When our nervous system becomes imbalanced or reactive, we can become judgmental, narrow-minded, or experience self-doubt. When fear arises, courage is needed to name, notice, and potentially release the source of our fears. Building a self-regulation “muscle” is a foundation for principled choice and ethically grounded action. When we focus on our core values, we can practice mindfulness and active engagement in ways that allow us to embody stability and clarity in challenging circumstances and to reflect our values in our choices, behavior, and character. Methods such as mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR), meditation, and movement practices such as yoga and tai chi are effective and accessible.

Develop ethical competence

Live the values you hold and align your inner character with your outward behaviors. Cultivating your ability to perceive ethical issues in complex cases can help you explore ethical values and principles and exert robust moral agency. Ethical competence encompasses skills in moral reasoning, habits and patterns of behavior that reflect our character, ongoing reflection, and principled, responsible action. When we attain new levels of ethical competence as nurses, we can achieve a new openness to the values, motivations, hopes, and fears of others.

Speak up with clarity and confidence

Find your voice of wisdom and clarity. Go beyond the protests of “why are we doing this” to state your concerns in inter-professional encounters using a clear, compelling, and ethically robust vocabulary. Courage, the ability to befriend your fears when confronted with a situation that requires you to act to preserve integrity, is often needed. Self-regulatory skills and self-awareness can be essential to differentiate your suffering from the patient’s and to clearly articulate the nature of the ethical conflict or concern.

Identify situations where you are able to act with integrity and when you must excuse yourself on grounds of conscience. Begin to notice when you are acting in ways that are aligned with your character and conscience. These patterns can be useful when confusion or uncertainty arise to help re-orient us toward integrity preserving action and inform how we communicate our concerns. Within our practice settings, we have access to relationships, systems, and structures that we can—and should—leverage for guidance and support.

Find meaning in the midst of despair

When confronted with seemingly senseless situations, meaning can be an antidote to despair. If the source of your moral distress is unmovable, stabilize your emotions to neutralize reactivity. Articulate your regrets and unmet expectations by journaling, debriefings, or reflections. Release, to the extent possible, the moral residue and re-calibrate to a “new normal” that restores your mind and heart to wholeness and makes space for the moral disappointment, sense of moral failure, or moral harm that was produced.

Create a potent antidote to powerlessness and despair by reconnecting with your core values and intentions. For all of us, reaffirming the values and purpose that originally drew us to the nursing profession can sustain us in the midst of ethical conundrums. Similarly, the practice of connecting to what we are grateful for—in ourselves, our patients, our colleagues, and our profession—is a powerful antidote to despair.

Engage with others

You are not alone. People with moral resilience leverage connections to themselves and others to support their integrity and well-being. Strong social connections can act as a safety net when you struggle to address ethical complexities and the isolation that often accompany moral distress. Become part of a moral community by talking one-on-one with colleagues or trusted advisors, connecting with family and friends, or reaching out to leaders within your institutions or professional organizations. Within our practice environment, we should look to and seek support from team activities such as facilitated inter-professional discussions or ethics consultation.

Participate in transformational learning

Seize the opportunity to learn from moral crises and the situations that produce moral distress. Confront your limitations, re-examine your positions and realign them with your moral core. We can change our behavior and practice by participating in professional activities including routine case reviews, root cause analysis of morally distressing cases, and ongoing quality improvement.

Contribute to a culture of ethical practice

The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics tells us that we are responsible for creating and sustaining a culture of ethical practice. As nurses, we can actively contribute to and leverage interprofessional efforts to design structures that bolster resilience. We can, for instance, find useful and tested tools in the work of the Center for Ethics in the Veteran’s Administration and by other ethics initiatives. And we can benefit from ongoing research into the nature of resilience for starting points in developing a culture of ethical practice, such as the work of Zolli, who suggests the alignment of “beliefs, values and habits of mind; trust and cooperation; cognitive diversity; strong communities, translational leadership and adaptive governance.”

Commitment to moral resilience

Moral resilience is an evolving concept in response to moral distress. Like physical exercise, moral resilience requires dedication, discipline, and compassion toward our limitations and inevitable setbacks. Creating a regular time and commitment to cultivate the elements of moral resilience and engaging resources to resist distractions and flagging will, are essential for robust moral resilience. As an ongoing practice, nurses will have regular opportunities to return to three core questions.

  • Who am I being in this moment?
  • How do I want to be known?
  • Am I choosing to act or not act in a way that I can live with?

These questions ground our intentions, character, choices, and behaviors to reduce the exhaustion that arises when we are out of alignment with our values and obligations. Regularly committing to specific actions to support your moral resilience upholds the 5th Provision of the ANA Code of Ethics: “The nurse owes the same duties to self as to others, including the responsibility to…preserve wholeness of character and integrity.” Being morally resilient is not optional; enact your moral resilience plan toda

The author would like to acknowledge Judy Douglas and Peter Young for editorial assistance and to note that this article is based on Rushton C. Moral resilience: a capacity for navigating moral distress in critical care. AACN Advanced Critical Care. 2015;27(1):111-9.

Cynda Hylton Rushton is the Anne and George L. Bunting Professor of Clinical Ethics and a professor of nursing and pediatrics at Johns Hopkins University, School of Nursing & Berman Institute of Bioethics, Baltimore, Maryland.

Selected references

American Nurses Association. Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements.

Foglia M, Pearlman R, Bottrell M, et al. Ethical challenges within Veterans Administration healthcare facilities: perspectives of managers, clinicians, patients, and ethics committee chairpersons. Am J Bioethics. 2009;9(4):28-36.

Helft PR, Bledsoe PD, Hancock M, et al. Facilitated ethics conversations: a novel program for managing moral distress in bedside nursing staff. JONA’S Healthc Law Ethics Regul. 2009;11(1):27-33.

Nelson HL. Damaged Identities, Narrative Repair. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press; 2001.

Oh Y, Gastmans C. Moral distress experienced by nurses: a quantitative literature review. Nurs Ethics. 2015;22(1):15-31.

Rushton C. Moral resilience: a capacity for navigating moral distress in critical care. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2015;27(1):111-9.

Rushton CH, Caldwell M, Kurtz M. Moral distress: empowering nurses to restore integrity. Am J Nurs. In press.

Rushton CH, Kaszniak AW, Halifax JS. A framework for understanding moral distress among palliative care clinicians. J Palliat Med. 2013;16(9):1074-9.

University of Kentucky, College of Medicine. The Moral Distress Project.

Varcoe C, Pauly B, Webter G. Moral distress: tensions as springboards for action. HEC Forum. 2012;24(1):51-62.

Zolli A, Healy A. Resilience: Why Things Bounce Back. New York: Free Press; 2012:15.


  1. After work, several RN’s would just talk about their stressful nights, especially the real sad ones & it was not only a source of decompression, but also a bonding experience within ourselves. Some nights after work in the parking lot we’d be crying & on a rare occasion we would be laughing. I think that 1/2 hour decompressing after work & the ability to show compassion for a nurse who had a particularly sad or stressful shift is so important in preventing burn out. We never felt alone & we took it upon ourselves to do that because we found benefits & comfort in doing so. I think that there should be a paid 1/2 post shift for nurses to decompress. That sense of support in knowing you are not alone is priceless & goes along way in the equation of preventing or at least diminishing burn out.

  2. the workplace should provide an in house place, meeting, group, and a variety of therapy
    like art therapy (writing, journaling, drawing, painting, hand made crafts OR just a mandatory meditation session daily., and better a gym and sauna…to quiet the mind, good nutrition stations. We need convenience when stressed. It’s not unrealistic or too much to ask for. What would happen without us? We need to know we are taken care of and help is right around the hallway per say.
    Some of us need this and some of us are just fine without it. All work and no play is no fun. Most of us go home to more work and therefore more need for resilience. A lot of people have no resources or knowledge on this matter. Many, have NO ONE to talk to or trust. There are ways to identify those with resilience problems and provide in house solutions because most of us don’t have time or willingness to go through trouble of visiting a doctors office or therapist .Providing in house physical and spiritual activities for employees is only common sense to me. The administrators have no idea what it’s like to be a staff nurse, therefore, they probably don’t realize the importance of workplace pleasure, fun, teamwork, laugh at our insecurities and speak up when we feel a need to, at appropriate times An in house support group may work. I am speaking from my
    own experience when I was a young nurse working 12 -16 hr shifts, kids at home, single mom, no family support, all work and no play. I just wanted to go home and crash much less drive to a gym or therapist office. I guess we need to become creative and trust trial and error to make the nurse more comfortable and at ease knowing support is around the corner, not on the other side of town. That’s my opinion

  3. I like the self-awareness piece love this article. Building moral resilience may be team effort, but it definitely starts with internal changes.

  4. Excellent article that helps us to remain in line with our morals and values especially in this difficult nursing situation that we have been forced into.

  5. if you are in a job that always causes stress and you see that no changes are being made to change the situation, then its time to move on to another job.

  6. Good reminders of working to make sure nurses and staff have the support they need to solve and give care for patients. Creating a trusting work environment that give nurses the tools they need to make sound decisions for being the best they can be and advocate for their patients makes for well nurses and patients.

  7. Appreciating the importance of everyone’s role in making a difference in the climate is crucial to help change a negative vortex. Being able to appreciate the holistic being of our co-workers is important.

  8. Great read. Bottom line is that if we are not healthy ourselves as nurses we can’t provide the care that our patients deserve and are entitled to. i am person who finds comfort and relief in just going to the bathroom and saying a little prayer. If you know of someone on your unit who prays as well perhaps getting together with them will help get you through the day and daily issues on a unit. there are those who do not like to pray in public and that’s okay.

  9. Great article with wonderful information and advice on how to increase resiliency in order to prevent burnout and decrease stress!

  10. As nurses I think we all struggle at learning to prioritize our self care. It is truly a goal for myself. Great article.

  11. Great read, informative and affirrming. Sometimes in the hustle and bustle of caring for others we forget even the most fundamental of things like self-care.

  12. Having been in moral despair and come back around, this is just what I need to read before returning to nursing practice to help vaccinate.

  13. AWESONE article, very appropriate during this time of the pandemic. As nurses, we pour our hearts and souls into taking care of our patients, ensuring everyone else is cared for and their needs are met. We forget to take care of ourself and to practice self care.

  14. Communication in a team is key. When it breaks down, many adverse effects can occur ie. patient outcomes, hostile workplace environment, staff turnover.

  15. Great information. It is important for us to be aware of the effects that the daily demands can take on us and how it can distract us from the importance of the job which is helping others. However, in order to help others, we must take the time to help ourselves and serve our energies so we can give care to those needing it.

  16. Working in a place that exceeds your expectations with team building and real compassion and empathy sure is a pleasant surprise after I have worked in places with bullying and clicks. Am glad to end my nursing career in a really great place!

  17. Excellent article demonstrating the importance of all nurses at every level to be leaders, provide respect, and look to selves to identify weaknesses and find ways to improve not only knowledge of medicine but of stressors and resources

  18. Interesting article, very appropriate during this time of the pandemic. At times, nurses (we) pour our hearts and souls into taking care of others, and ensuring that everybody else is healthy, their needs are met, etc that we forget to practice self care.

  19. This is an excellent article that provides clear definitions on moral distress. It also provides evidence-informed pathways to develop the resilience to overcome such distress. I am eager to disseminate what I have learned to my team!



  20. The opportunities to think about the three core questions.

    Who am I being at the moment ?
    How do I want patients to remember me & how I want to be known? And, choosing a way act or not act that I feel I can live with?
    All these concepts can aid any nurse who listens, and thinks before acting.

  21. This is a very interesting article that discusses some important aspects of being a nurse today. It is important to be able to maintain your own morality while providing care for others. Nurses give so much to their patients and need to be reminded to care for their own selves.

  22. Nurses will always be faced with moral dilemmas. This article is a very good resource to offer suggestions and support strategies.

  23. Overcoming Moral Stress and building Moral Resilience takes a village! The entire team working together and communication is key. 2020 has been a challenging year for nurses, but we are resilient and spring back. Moral stress is real and we can help each other. Great article!

  24. Every staff member should feel good at work and not stressed and overly tired. Yes it can be busy but working as a team and not just letting one person deal with the stress is a major factor.

  25. Great article. I especially liked “who am I being in this moment? Who do I want to be known as?” Sometimes it’s necessary to take a step back and think about those two very important things

  26. With a good foundation for moral resiliency, nurses are better able to name the ethical problem, inquire into the facts, and determine action that supports integrity.

  27. This article refreshes and reinforces the principles of ethics and assisting in providing a safe environment (Physical,Mental and Social) within my work environment.

  28. All great comments. totally agree with the huddle to get your team motivated and address any concerns for the shift and get some positive energy going. Check in with coworkers periodically to see how everyone is managing and also give yourself a time out when you need it to reset and reenergize.

  29. Very informative article. Nursing is a complex field of work not made for everyone. We have to be open minded and be resilient to all the obstacles we face.

  30. Great article, asking for help and reevaluate moral standards are important for a stable mental health. In order to provide great care it’s important to care for ourselves

  31. I really enjoyed this reading as it hit home. Who am I being in this moment? How do I want to be known? Am I choosing to act or not act in a way that I can live with? These are wonderful questions to ask to make sure you feel comfortable with the task at hand.

  32. I have been taking care of people all of my life and seem to not have time to take care of myself. Thank you for reminding me that it is ok to schedule time for myself, after all if I am not taking care of myself, who is? I like the fact that even in the work place I can stop and take the time to ask these questions to set me up to continue doing what I do best! Who am I being in this moment? How do I want to be known? Am I choosing to act or not act in a way that I can live with?

  33. I appreciate the strategies to express my viewpoints and take care of myself. Nursing is perhaps the hardest job to love of all

  34. Moral Resilience is definitely a skill to acquire while working on the front line during this pandemic. With all the changes requiring flexibility, team work, handling loss all while calming down the frustration of family members who cannot visit their loved ones. Maintaining peace and having a strong spiritual foundation have been other keys to success during this current time. Great article.

  35. This course is relevant and timely. I realize that self regulation and speaking up are important fo ease moral distress. O am being reminded of this at a time when these practices are important.

  36. This course spoke very loudly to me. As a nurse for over 40 yrs. I see too often moral problems in medical practices along with money driven companies that require nurses to factor in extra charges.

  37. It is so important as nurses that we continue to have high standards and be ethical with our choices and decisions. We have a moral responsibility to no judge but to care, do not condemn but to offer help. Nursing is a deep-seated fiber of the work that we do to help any and all people. Excellent article.

  38. Thank you for this article. It made me aware of how I have a responsibility to by emotional and spiritual well being as well as my physical well being

  39. Thank you! Even though we think this sometimes, we often don’t speak about it. It’s good to know there are people considering this for us.

  40. Nurses rarely consider Resilience, they often come to work, punch in, receive an assignment and only in key cases, do RNs realize that if they consider how they adapt to change will be essential as to whether they will have a long career.

  41. This is definitely a great issue that needs dealing with. Nurses are almost always facing moral distress in the workplace.

  42. I have found over my nursing career that if you use the correct tone and state the facts that you can change the outcome or path of care for a patient. That being said most nurses are very “passionate” and this is often times difficult to do. I like the three questions to ask myself and will use that in the future.

  43. As a Hospice nurse, I seem to run into a lot of moral dilemmas. There is often disagreement between loved ones or other caregivers about what is best for the patient, or even between the patient and the family. It can be very tricky at times to navigate these problems. I like the part about reminding us to examine our views, as the patient and /or family or caregivers may not be at the same mindset as nurses are. I also liked the part about being true to ourselves and acting in a way we can live with.

  44. Thank you for sharing this helpful resource. I am privileged to serve as a nursing leader and appreciate the reminders about how my behavior(s) impact others.

  45. After more than 30 years of bedside nursing I am just realizing the core of my deep frustration with the nursing profession. That the power for the most part to have a chance to have the ability to meaningfully contribute to the patients plan of care has not really been in the nurses corner. This is why being a doctor always looked so attractive. The ability to make decisions in the patients plan of care has not really been much of an option for nurses which leaves us frustrated. This is a shame. No wonder nurses feel so frustrated. Nursing has gotten a lot more empowering but it is still a career that leaves (mostly woman still) a great deal of feeling powerless which is not a healthy place to be. At least this article and others like it are helping nurses to be more self aware so we can feel like we have made valuable contributions to people’s outcomes and lives which we have done.

  46. One should be true to oneself. Nurses must recognize that we all are human with emotions. We must take care to take care of ourselves so that we can help others in a time when the patient is experiencing emotional distress.

  47. This was a great article and provides self insight. Wonderful reminder we are not alone, what we are experiencing has a name, and taking care of ourselves emotionally and psychologically is our strength in moral dilemmas.

  48. Awesome information to remind us that we need to care for ourselves before we are truly able to care properly for others.

  49. This is a great overview of the issues of moral distress and I gave this assignment to RN>BSN completion students and the array of moral issues that they must deal with, and be resilient to, was daunting. This provides a framework for helping them achieve their resilience, but I would like more strategies for them to safely address these moral dilemmas. THey are not in positions of power.

  50. how can a nurse also have empathy for the patient which allows insight for beneficial and productive ways of being a positive advocate for each patient?

  51. I believe I take better care of my family, friends, patients and staff. Whatever is left, is mine. This has been going on FAR TOO long and I prescribe to doing better beginning today.

  52. I love my job. There’s just too much of it and higher acuity patients. I arrive early work, skip all breaks everyday, and work through lunch almost everyday. The first thing I think about is retiring early. Second thought is I have to pay the bills. Then I get to work and repeat the same thing day after day. I am praised for my ability to handle the case load and precept students and interns even on the worst of days. My job partner does the same thing. We discuss our retirements together and know that the light is now closer to the end of the tunnel than we thought. Right now stocking shelves or working retail looks like a happier place to be.

  53. I have to sell this to myself almost every day. I MUST take care of myself-please get the walk in on the greenway… you need it SOO much & so does the puppy 🙂

  54. We have experience a lot of this in the work place. Sometimes we are so busy taking care of others that we tend to ignore our own self care. Thank you for the strategies and tips to help us as nurses maintain our moral resilience

  55. I enjoyed this article very much! We as nurses are so busy taking care of others that we forget we must also take care of ourselves.

  56. very informative. good information and thought provoking. self care is very important and a lot of nurses do not do this, including myself! thank you

  57. This article is spot on. Meeting with other nurses to discuss relevant issues and journaling can be beneficial to understanding situations that require us to question how we perceive ethical issues.

  58. Excellent strategies given for nurses to be more resilient in better caring for themselves, co-workers which eventually helps in care of the patients.

  59. Everything goes back to yourself, an answer to the question, a self reflection.. What made me decide to become a nurse? As a nurse, a strong foundation the reason behind why you what to be a nurse, eventually will make you morally resilient.

  60. Years ago nursing was built on moral resilience, in the 80’s we continued being taught that it was expected. Today, many students and new grads stray far from this, it is our duty to practice this and be examples for the new generation of nurses.

  61. Moral distress happens frequently in mental health with coming to terms with other’s beliefs in their practice. This article is a reminder of what can be done to care for others and ourselves.

  62. Very well said and relatable. I feel as being a leader, one of my priorities is to constantly being on watch and identify when the team starts to pull back and become less engaged, using it as a warning sign. That is when I bring them in and switch up their assignment, giving them redirection to focus on new tasks positively versus the repetitive duties creating negatives. This article is very helpful!

  63. Interesting, informative article. Ethical principles and actions are such a daily practice in every nurse’s life.

  64. I think there should be more opportunities for nurses to “debrief” or “unload” after particularly distressing days.

  65. reaffirming why we became nurses will help us to refocus. We never said we became nurses to take care of ourselves, but how can we effectively care for others if we don’t care for ourselves?

  66. This article gave good pointers on dealing with issues we are faced with in healthcare that conflict with our personal beliefs. We must remind ourselves why we joined this profession, but also remain true to who we are as we go through our day. We should not feel compelled to do something that violates our personal beliefs because at the end of the day we have to be happy with our choices.

  67. Moral resilience vs moral stress
    A lot of information packed in this article, some old, but a lot of it is new to me

  68. I can see how moral resilience is important in many situations where you question what you are doing. I love the questions to ask yourself for the commitment to moral resilience because it gives you a way to reflect on yourself.

  69. I LOVE this article and the fact that ANA has included statement 5, which speaks to self care.
    It is a personal quest of mine to achieve self care.

  70. Very informative article that will help me to continue to improve my moral resilience and become a better nurse by doing this which will give my patient’s the best care that they deserve.

  71. Developing and checking the self-regulation “muscle” is important for every nurse in order to continue to learn, educate, and maintain a healthy, professional status.

  72. Refocusing on the important things in life, and why I am a nurse is something I always have to remind myself of.

  73. If everyone works together and is willing to help out fellow co-workers, it will help to eliminate some of the stress

  74. Who am I being in this moment? How do I want to be known? Am I choosing to act or not act in a way that I can live with? Great questions to ask yourself when you’re feeling overwhelmed or need to re-center yourself

  75. I think it’s very important to have a regular “re-set” button that reminds us why we became nurses in the first place and that is to take care of other people. When we break it down to this basic insight, many of the other issues that we deal with on a daily basis seem to resolve themselves. I think it’s very important that we take time when outside of work to participate in calming activities and also share experiences with our fellow staff members.

  76. Good food for thought:)
    Who am I being in this moment?
    How do I want to be known?
    Am I choosing to act or not act in a way that I can live with?

  77. I think all nurses should read this to remind us to take care of ourselves s that we can be the best nurses for our patients.

  78. I thought this was a very thought provoking article that made practical suggestions of how to prevent burnout

    It emphasized the importance of team support

    Its focus on the mind, body spirit aspects of nursing was a reminder of the importance of maintaining a balance in order to be an effective health professional

  79. It is important for nurses to be able to respect and honor others values and morals. Nurses play an exceptional role in people’s everyday lives.

  80. It is important for a nurse to reaffirm and/or recall why becoming a nurse was important in the first place. Remember the defining moment when an individual realized that being a nurse was the most important goal in his or her life.

  81. Building Moral Resilience can be a team effort. Spirituality in the workplace makes staff calmer and able to handle emerging situations with tact and professionalism.
    Sometimes, a five minute huddle in the middle of a busy work day to pray touches the entire group and has a ripple effect on the rest.


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