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Opioid and non-opioid analgesia during surgery

Understanding how and why anesthesia providers select analgesic agents. Takeaways: Many options exist for managing intraoperative and postoperative surgical pain. Medications used for pain...

Families and post-intensive care syndrome

Post-intensive care syndrome (PICS) is defined as new or increased physical, cognitive, or mental health impairment in a patient after hospitalization in a critical care unit. Similarly, post-intensive care syndrome-family (PICS-F) refers to new or increased cognitive or mental health impairment in family members after a loved one is hospitalized in a critical care setting.

Concussion: Prevention, assessment, and management

Concussion, a subset of mild traumatic brain injury, can lead to long-term effects, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy. (See Con­cussion’s impact.) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that approximately 30 million children in the United States participate in sports that put them at risk for head trauma and concussion. And many young athletes who experience mild head trauma don’t report symptoms until hours after the injury.
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Diabetes— Pharmacologic management update

Concentrated insulin and noninsulin medications help patients manage their diabetes. Takeaways: when large volumes of insulin are injected subcutaneously, inadequate absorption, poor adherence, insulin leaking...
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Postmenopausal women and urinary incontinence

According to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, about 6,000 women in the United States enter menopause every day. During menopause (which is defined as the cessation of menstruation for 12 consecutive months), estrogen levels significantly decrease, resulting in hormonal fluctuations and physiological changes to the genitalia.

Community-acquired pneumonia

Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is exactly what it sounds like—a lung infection acquired while out and about in the world. The cause may be a virus, bacteria, or fungus. (See CAP stats.) community acquired pneumonia cap stats The estimated cost of treating CAP in the United States is about $12.2 billion a year. Inpatient treatment ranges from $7,500 to $10,227 per admission, whereas outpatient treatment ranges from $150 to $350 per patient. This difference demonstrates the need for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
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Assessing and preventing cognitive impairment in the elderly

All segments of the international population are living longer, and many will experience dementia. Policymakers are focused on the cost estimates of caring for elders with cognitive impairment. The World Alzheimer Report 2016, from Alzheimer’s Disease International, a global federation of 85 Alzheimer’s associations, highlighted the need to make dementia an international health priority. The numbers in the report are staggering: 47 million people are estimated to be living with dementia worldwide, with the number projected to increase to more than 131 million by 2050. The report recommends that nations develop a plan to address dementia, removing the stigma around it, and protecting the human rights of these individuals.
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Genetics in the clinical setting

The central dogma of biology (deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] to ribonucleic acid [RNA] to protein) was first described in 1957, before the current average-aged 50-year-old nurse was born. And it wasn’t until 2008 that genetics was considered essential to nursing education, when most experienced nurses were already at least 45. In other words, many nurses have minimal genetics education and may not feel comfortable incorporating genetics assessment and implications into a patient care plan.
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Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: A deadly duo

Learn about the vital education patients need to improve their outcomes. Takeaways: Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can lead to multiple complications. The...
patient care after transcatheter aortic valve replacement

Caring for Patients after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

Understanding options for patients helps you be a more effective caregiver.   Takeaways Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement for some...

Improving care and outcomes for patients with bladder conditions

Key takeways Bladder conditions are common, costly, and hidden. With adequate information, individuals can participate in self-care for treatment and prevention. Nurses serve important...

Caring for patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the community

Key takeways Early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis is important to manage symptoms. A combination of biologics and non-drug management of rheumatoid arthritis can slow...

Caring for patients with a left ventricular assist device

Nearly 6 million Americans suffer from heart failure (HF). The American Heart Association predicts that the number of individuals diagnosed with HF will increase 46% by...